Learn the specific terms of fine art photography
A process of dye destruction which became widespread in 1963: this method allows for the production of an image on paper throu- gh a positive-to-positive photographic process. It stands out for its high-intensity colours and allows for long-term conserva- tion of the image.
A process invented by the Swiss chemist Heinz Sovilla-Brulhart in 1969. It invol- ves positioning the print under Plexiglas to reinforce its protection. It is a protected trademark held by the Swiss society Alrane Inventing AG.
DIBOND ® / SANDWICH PANEL
A brand of a “sandwich” structure using two aluminum panels with a polyethylene core on which the print is stuck to ensure its rigi- dity. The trademark was registered in 1992 and is held by 3A Composites, a division of the Swiss group Schweiter Technologies.
Created by Epson, Digigraphie® is an authenticity-ensured printing method for producing photographic images from com- puters on large-scale, high-quality printers. The technology uses certified paper, prin- ting a certificate of authentication and the artist’s signature.
MAROUFLAGE / MOUNTED PAPER
Action of sticking the main work of art (in our case, the photograph) to another mate- rial, supposedly sturdier: a thicker paper, a canvas, a board, etc.
A thick paper material that results in a very smooth surface and a definite white colour, achieved through the presence of Barium sulfate.
Designed for making prints from colour negatives, RC Paper is paper constituted of a combination of different chemicals and resin-coated to increase the ink’s resistance to the ozone and atmospheric gasses.
Born in Russia in 1916 with Constructivism, photomontage is the assembly of several photographs in collage form or through software which allows for graphical retouches.
RAYOGRAPH / PHOTOGRAM
Using objects placed on sensitive paper, this technique uses the path taken by the light around the object to create the image. Following exposure to light, the paper is submerged into a developing bath to create a negative. The areas covered by the object having stopped the light remain white; the parts partially covered are grey, whilst tho- se totally exposed are black.
To describe a print produced from a negative (or file) after the death of the original creator: reprinting is an interpretation outside the ar- tist’s control, meaning it cannot be conside- red as an original work in legal terms.
The printing process aims to attain one or more positives from a single negative or file. Analog printing, produced by inversing the range of greys, is most frequently carried out by an enlarger in a lab. It can also describe a reduction or be created through contact between the negative and sensitive paper. The digital image, for its part, only becomes a photograph after printing, when it takes the form of a tangible image on paper. Printing is therefore both the action of transferring the image onto a medium and the final result.
Chromogenic colour prints – or C-prints – are full-colour photographs on glossy paper, produced from an original colour negative.
FINE ART PRINT
Fine Art prints are produced from a digital file and printed using artistic – matt or glossy – paper and pigmented inks.
This term is used to describe the coloured version of the charcoal printing technique created by Poitevin in 1855. Pierre Fresson created this method – using charcoal prin- ting to produce colour images - in 1952 and operated out of the Fresson workshop in a Parisian suburb. Resulting in a technically and aesthetically high-quality print, Fresson print slowly decomposes the colours in the image.
GELATIN SILVER PRINT
This process uses a sheet of paper covered in a light-sensitive gelatin emulsion, using silver salts to affect the light sensitivity. Printing gelatin silver prints is a process which only reveals the image following development in a chemical bath.
In this process, the inkjet printer uses liquid ink which is essential in the creation of a hi- gh-quality color rendition, staying faithful to the colours in the original image.
LAMBDA PRINT / LIGHTJET PRINT
A photograph printed on traditional silver sensitive paper, using only a digital file.
PLATINUM / PALLADIUM PRINT / PLATINOTYPE
Created in 1830, this technique, using Pla- tinum and/or Palladium instead of silver, helps to create matte prints with particular- ly intense contrasts, the tonal range stret- ching from deep blacks to brownish red.